5.5151 Must the sign of a negative proposition be constructed with the sign of a positive proposition? Why should one not be able to express a negative proposition by means of a negative fact. (For instance: If “a” does not stand in a specific relation to “b”, this could express the fact that aRb is not the case.)

But even here the negative proposition is given indirectly by the positive proposition.

The positive *proposition* must presuppose the existence of the negative *proposition* and *vice versa*.

Yes, this should be old news within the *Tractatus*. Cf. 5.44.

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